It further reports that city residents widely agree that closing the slums and resettling the migrants requires federal intervention. Barry, John D. Succinctly reviews The Grapes of Wrath by soliciting opinions from many different people. The article concludes that it is bringing much needed attention to the socioeconomic condition of migrants, whatever its literary merits or political philosophy.
Battat, Erin Royston. Baxter, W. Analyzes the layout, amenities, and administration of migrant labor camps in Imperial Valley. Although each family has its own domicile, whether wood or canvas, the amenities provided for each one vary by function, construction, and population density. Hence, houses have private toilets and showers but tents normally have communal ones that may be easily expanded as necessary. Specialized units such as recreation halls and medical facilities are built for the entire camp.
The burden of camp maintenance is also democratic in responsibility, requiring all inhabitants to provide money into a general fund or two hours per day of extra work in lieu of payments. Although disputes between growers and migrants have been expected, there are no reports of such that directly involve federal or state camp dwellers. Beals, Carleton. Sympathetically describes the life of migrants in the San Joaquin Valley and nearby coastal regions. Using inter-views with migrants and personal observations of each stage in their journey westward, the article presents a complete picture of their experience that places it within economic, historical, and cultural contexts while avoiding the tendency in the regional and national press to sensationalize their poverty and cultural differences, although its sympathy for them is not without some ambiguity.
Beebe, Lucius. Satirically analyzes migrants who insinuate themselves into the fashionable society of California. Coming from throughout the nation, they use their capital and wits to avoid drudgery by transforming themselves into fashionable company for Californian socialites, particularly those associated with the entertainment industry, whereby they may hobnob with stars and live exclusively on the largesse of gifts, parties, and seasonal lodging that comes through such connections.
California Odyssey: Bibliography
It concedes that the public routinely blurs the differences between migrant laborers and migrant social climbers, yet the article does the same by describing both groups as loafers who are determined to live only by what nature and the public provides them and by its satisfaction in observing how many of the latter eventually fall out of high society and must settle into the menial positions held by the former.
Beecroft, Eric and Seymour Janow. Beeman, Randal. Benson, Jackson J.
Read e-book Misfortune: First Years in California (Exile in California Book 1)
Hired in by the Resettlement Administration later called the Farm Security Administration , Collins served as manager of the first migrant camp program in California. When Steinbeck went to the Division of Information offices for help with a series of articles on the migrants, he was directed to Tom Collins at the Weedpatch camp.
Bernstein, Michael A. Bonnifield, Paul. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, Paul Bonnifield presents a study on the wind erosion and droughts that encompassed Oklahoma, Texas, New Mexico, Colorado, and Kansas between and Through his own research consisting of interviews, newspaper articles, and state and federal studies, Bonnifield challenges past theories on the dust bowl and argues that the traditional view of life in the dust bowl needs to be reexamined.
He is sympathetic to the plight of the individuals who withstood the natural disaster and lived through the depression years. It is his belief that hardworking farmers withstood natural and governmental interference and should be credited with the efforts to save the land, not New Deal projects and policies. Bonnifield takes the stance that dust storms were not new to the area, and that neither the farmer nor World War II wheat demands were to blame for the Dust Bowl.
He also presents evidence to support the argument that many of the dust bowl regions were less affected economically during the Great Depression than many other areas of the nation during the s.
Thucydides, Book 1
With a critical stance on many of the federal polices being applied in rural areas of America, Bonnifield places blame on many of the New Deal agricultural planners, and contends that the federal government intentionally set out to depopulate the region by deliberately bleeding the land dry to reduce settlers and revert the land back to public use.
Defends the need to maintain a border quarantine against insects and plant diseases. That California has agricultural production valued at ,, a year is largely due to the fact that so far pests and plant diseases not native to the Sate have been successfully excluded. Boren, Lyle H.
Edited by Agnes McNeill Donohue. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, Brady, Amy. Paul, Assistant Agricultural Economist. Bright, Margaret L.
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Bristol, Horace. Photographer Bristol recounts his travels with John Steinbeck through the Central Valley, interviewing and photographing migrants.
Brown, Malcolm and Orin Cassmore. Examines the working and living conditions of migrant cotton pickers in Arizona in relation to other states, particularly California.
As with their counterparts in California, economic instability pushed and a rising demand for agri-cultural labor pulled migrants to Arizona, although Arizonan growers initially failed to attract many because wages were much lower compared to those offered in California and Texas, and, as in California, migrants usually live in camps provided by growers, which are typically unclean and crowded. Impoverished, they rarely eat meat and fresh vegetables, relying almost exclusively on carbohydrates, and are highly vulnerable to diseases because of such chronic malnutrition, their children being the hardest hit.
Buck, Claudia. Hard work and family were her most enduring legacy that was passed down to her 10 children, 39 grandchildren, 74 great-grandchildren and seven great-great-grandchildren. Burke, Robert E.
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Berkeley, CA: University of California, In the first half of the twentieth century California saw only one Democratic state administration, under that of Governor Culbert L. Olson, who was elected in and defeated in As he took office, Olson optimistically believed that a new social and political era would go hand in hand with his governorship, and he promised to set forth principles and policies that were in line with those of the federal New Deal policies.
Soon after taking office, Governor Olson suffered many personal and administrative setbacks. He was hospitalized for nervous exhaustion after overworking himself shortly after inauguration, and only four months later his wife passed away.
Olson also inherited problems of high unemployment, health insurance, public ownership, taxation, and out of balance budgets. Burke explains that Governor Olson was elected because he pledged to make many reforms; however, he was unable to get the legislature to actually pass many of his programs due in part because the reform era was largely over.
Olson was also overly specific in his reform measures, and Burke states, in general, had bad luck. Burke does not believe that Olson had what most would consider a true reform administration. Burmeister, Eugene. Butler, Martin. Heidelberg: Winter, Beginning in the late s, Guthrie wrote and sang hundreds of folk songs, strongly influencing many future generations of singers and songwriters. Drawing on his own and many others collective experiences during the Dust Bowl and Great Depression, Guthrie freely, but subtly placed comments on politics, economics, social injustices, religion, and literature within his songs.
Caldwell, Erskine and Margaret Bourke-White. You Have Seen Their Faces. NY: Modern Age Books, Briefly reports that 70, Dust Bowl migrants have left Oklahoma and that many have settled in the San Joaquin Valley. These migrants face starvation, disease, and have exhausted relief programs. California State Department of Social Welfare. Division of Child Welfare. Report cites the industrialization of California agriculture as the reason for the increase in migrants to California.
Data includes: family size, income, residence status, previous occupations, relief received by families including Mexican, white, black and Native American. The statistical tables emphasize the health situation of children, including nutrition, infections, hygiene, tuberculosis, congenital defects. Many migrant families do not receive relief; non-residents do not receive medical care and are unable to pay for private medical care.
Those migrants who are residents often do not take advantage of medical services. Recommends that state and federal agencies should pay for the improvement of the poor conditions under which migrant families live. California State Legislature. Surveys the farm tenancy in the United States from to Provides an analysis of the results of the U. Part I addresses the problem of farm tenure in the United States from two points of view: 1 the status of the farm tenant compared to that of the farm owner; and 2 the status of the farm tenant and that of the farm laborer working for wages.
Part II discusses the growth of farm tenancy from to in the United States. Contains detailed tables from the U. California State Chamber of Commerce. California State Department of Public Health. Bureau of Child Hygiene.